‘… containing rules for cutting out garments of every kind … the whole concerted and devised by a society of adepts in the profession …’
Facsimile of a pattern book of 1632 now in the private collection of John and Elizabeth Mason. Includes patterns for all forms of linen decoration, many of them taken from much earlier pattern books.
Many drawings/diagrams and illustrations.
Includes discussion of fragments of a leather jerkin excavated in the City of London. Additional notes by J. L. Nevinson and W. Rector.
Includes monochrome plates and pattern of a suit of 1618 in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
Monochrome plates of sixteenth- and early seventeenth-century pinking tools and pinked clothing.
Includes monochrome plates and pattern.
Describes and illustrates with patterns the oldest surviving robes of the Order of The Garter dating to 1603.
Includes pattern with detailed descriptive notes.
A brief report of a lecture given in Denmark by the author on a black satin petticoat of about 1615-20 in the National Museum, Copenhagen.
Janet Arnold left this paper virtually complete at her death in 1998. It is an important piece of work to which she had given a substantial amount of time, but it does not fit with her plans for the forthcoming volume of Patterns of Fashion: The Cut and Construction of Linen Clothes for Men and Women. However, because of the rarity of the ‘pair of straight bodies’ and the need to make the fruits of her research available to others, it was decided to follow Janet’s own practice with one-off items of importance and to submit the article to Costume.
Janet’s full-scale pattern of the ‘pair of straight bodies’ has been scaled down to fit the page size of Costume, otherwise all the descriptions and queries are Janet’s own, as are the drawings and photographs chosen to illustrate her text.
She continued to work on the project after she had written the first draft text; consequently two references have been added to clarify the role of John Colte, and to illustrate the silk materials used to cover the ‘bodies’ made for the queen by William Jones.
Describes the design of a form on which to support the preserved textiles making up the doublet and trunk hose worn in the 16th century by Don Garzia de’Medici. Because it was important to preserve the shape of the costume as well as its fabric, a torso, arms, and legs were created to display the conserved suit. Using dimensions extrapolated from design units of the garments to create a pattern, conservators fabricated a complete calico copy of the clothing. This helped specify the shape of the supporting form, which was stitched together of polyethylene sheeting (Ethafoam), a lightweight, flexible, and chemically inert material, and then mounted on a frame.
The development of the riding habit in England in the 18th century is examined. Originally a solely utilitarian garment, the riding habit began a process of evolution in the second half of the 17th century. By the mid 18th century, it had become an essential part of the wardrobe of fashionable middle- and upper-class women, and it retained this position for many decades. Developing in parallel with the male suit, it always maintained its basic format of habit jacket, skirt, and optional waistcoat, although details of cut and trimming changed with fashion. It was adopted with enthusiasm by many women, who, in addition to wearing it for riding and following the hunt, particularly used it for traveling and increasingly as informal daywear. The writer discusses the cut and construction of the riding habit, its various components, its accessories, the huge range of colors selected for it, and the fabrics and trimmings used.
Monochrome plates and diagrams showing the cut of basic T-shaped garments.
Discussion of the construction and embroidery of women’s sleeveless bodices of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century. Some of the embroidery is of English origin, but some appears to be of Indian or Chinese design.
Includes a one quarter scale pattern, not of a particular garment, but based on examination of eighteenth-century coats in the collections of the Metropolitan Museum (New York), the David M Stewart Museum (Montreal), the Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto) and European collections. Discusses tailoring techniques and variations in men’s clothing of the period between England, France and their colonies.
Available from: Fortress of Louisbourg Volunteer Association, Louisbourg, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Discussion of hand-knitted stockings including pattern of the Gunnister men’s hose, from Shetland c.1700.
Aimed primarily at those in the theatre. The first section discusses the management of certain types of garment (e.g. skirts and cloaks). The second section offers a history of costume with emphasis on the poise and posture adopted by the wearers.
Catalogue of the costume collection at the Museum of London with 21 monochrome plates and 2 folding patterns of mantuas.
Illustrated with photographs and a diagram of a 1730s mantua in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
The writers investigate the development, execution, and eventual decline of the all-over pleated back in western women’s dress. Tradition was responsible for the use of all-over bodice pleating in the creation of women’s dresses at the end of the 18th century. First seen in children’s garments, the all-over pleated back continued a time-honored method of fabric preservation. In all such early examples, cutting the cloth was avoided where possible, even if at the cost of more labor. In hindsight, it becomes apparent that the all-over pleated bodice was a transitional means of fitting gown bodices to their wearers. Pleating became almost obsolete with the use of cheaper dress goods and the concentration on silhouette instead of fabric. By the first few years of the 19th century, stitched-down pleating had been replaced by seams to fit the smaller, higher-waisted bodices. However, the significance of all-over bodice pleating, though relatively short-lived, should not be neglected: Its role in connecting the 18th century with the early 19th century is vital to an understanding of changing fashion at that time.
Understanding the precise construction of early sixteenth-century women’s dress presents considerable difficulties. Satisfactorily reconstructing it is an even greater challenge. The study reported here used contemporary archaeological, pictorial and documentary evidence to inform alternative experimental approaches to constructing the garments worn on a woman’s torso in the 1540s. The results showed that stiffening the kirtle was more successful than stiffening the petticoat or gown in achieving the characteristic body shape portrayed in Holbein’s work.
Monochrome plates of patterns.
Includes diagrams of bedgowns with dimensions.
This useful bibliographic reference guide has been compiled from a large number of the source materials published in English dealing with flat pattern drafting and draping (French modelling), methods of tailoring and commercial paper pattern companies. The works are listed chronologically, from the sixteenth century to the twentieth century. The 2,726 entries include 1,762 books, 877 journals and 87 articles. There is an author index, a title index, a subject index and a chronological index to give quick guidance to readers.
Provides details of how stays pattern pieces were designed to produce the cone-like shape, including change over the course of the century.
While it is commonly understood that whalebone played a prominent role in shaping fashionable stays and hoops of the eighteenth century, the connection between the fashion trades and whaling has been little discussed. This article addresses this lack, providing, in the first instance, an overview of procuring and processing whalebone in preparation for market. It then examines the dissemination of whalebone within the fashion trades, drawing upon the rich collection of primary papers detailing the business partnership ventures of a London haberdasher and a Lord Mayor. The final part of the article analyses stays with a view to determining the functionality and qualities of whalebone which made it an indispensable commodity in the creation of eighteenth-century stays. In doing so, it draws upon the previously unknown diary of a regional staymaker, and explores the roles played by women in determining the extent to which stays were worn, and thus the impact their consumption had on those who plied the whalebone trade.
Discusses a woollen doublet of the mid 17th century found with the remains of a young man’s body in a peat bog in 1975. A pattern of the doublet is included.
Although it is well known that the literature on embroidery includes investigations into professional and amateur practice, the interaction between professional pattern drawers for embroidery, professional embroiderers and amateurs of this art remains to be fully examined. To this end, this object lesson examines a group of designs for embroidery in order to provide evidence of the technique for which they were employed; the dates and inscriptions on the designs demonstrate their use as a business archive, while the names of the clients reveal a social network. The final part of this article focuses on trade cards and suggests how the designs illuminate the negotiation between retailer and customer.
A study of a layette found at Shrubland Park, the Saumarez family’s house in Suffolk, England. Among the items in this layette are a silk-satin long gown that was presumably made for a christening and a number of linen items. Stylistic analysis of the gown suggests that it was made in the 1760s or 1770s. The collection of linen items is puzzling because they are made from the same two linen fabrics, but certain features indicate that at least some of them would seem to be of later date. Further evidence is necessary to establish when the layette was made and for whom, but a study of the Saumarez family history suggests that the gown, a cot cover, a basket lining, and possibly some linen items were most probably made for the christening of Martha Le Marchant, the wife of Sir James, Baron de Saumarez, in 1768, and the other linen items for her children from 1789 onward.
For around 400 years fashion and decency required a neatly boned body, yet at the same time many women spent much of their adult lives pregnant. How women were able to dress would affect their role in public society, yet letters and diaries show little reduction in their daily activities. Evidence of what was actually worn is scarce, perhaps because the dilemma was not so great as we imagine — whenever clothing is mentioned or depicted we see women wearing normal garments adapted with the addition of one or two items. Front-lacing stays could be adapted with stomachers, and some back-lacing ones exist with additional side-lacing; both styles would suit the pregnant and non-pregnant state alike. It is not until the nineteenth century that specific maternity corsets and clothing begin to appear, when general corset design and fashion styles became impossible to adapt without structural alteration.
115 plates and 24 patterns of garments from museums and private collections.
29 pages of plates, 42 cutting diagrams and 27 tailor’s patterns.
71 pages of plates, 75 cutting diagrams and 54 tailor’s patterns.
Discussion of construction of a young man’s frock coat in the collection of R and M Ferguson (on loan to Dalgarven Mill Trust, Kilwinning, Ayrshire, KA13 6PL). Includes pattern.